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German Shepherd

German Shepherd (German: Deutsche Sch? Ferhund) is a medium to large working dog originated in Germany. In English, the official name of the breed is German Shepherd (sometimes abbreviated as GSD). The breed was officially called Alsatian in the UK until it was renamed German shepherd in 1977. German shepherd dog is a relatively new breed, its origin can be traced back to 1899. As a part of herdsman group, German shepherd dog is a working dog originally developed for shepherding. But since then, because of its strength, intelligence, trainability and obedience, German Shepherds around the world have often been the preferred breed for many types of work, including disability assistance, search and rescue, police and military roles, and operations. German Shepherd is the second largest registered breed of American dog club and the seventh largest registered breed of British dog club.

German Shepherds are medium to large dogs. The standard height of the breed is 60-65cm (24-26in) for the male and 55-60cm (22-24in) for the female. German Shepherds are longer than tall dogs and the ideal ratio is 10 to 8 1 / 2. The AKC official breed standard does not set a standard weight range. Their forehead is dome shaped, with a rectangular muzzle, a strong chin and a black nose. Eyes medium size, brown. The ears are large, erect, open in front and parallel, but they are often pulled back during movement. A German shepherd dog has a long neck, which is raised when excited and lowered when moving fast. The tail is thick, reaching the festival.

German shepherd dog has two coats, compact and thick bottom coat. There are two variants of coat: medium length. Long hair genes are recessive, making long hair varieties more rare. Different standards deal with the variation of long hair in different ways; they can accept it, but they can't compete with the standard coated dogs under German and British dog clubs. Although they can compete with the standard coated dogs, they are considered wrong in American dog clubs. FCI accepted the long hair type as variety B and the short hair type as variety a in 2010.

Most commonly, German Shepherds are tan / black or red / black. Most color variants have black masks and black body markings, ranging from classic "saddles" to full-length "blankets.". The more common color changes include sable, black, white, liver, silver, blue and panda breeds. By most standards, all black and sable breeds are acceptable. However, blue and liver are considered serious defects, and all white is the reason for immediate disqualification in all kinds of exhibitions and professional exhibitions.

German Shepherd is a moderately active dog, described in breed standards as self-sufficient. The breed is characterized by a willingness to learn and a desire for goals. They are curious, which makes them excellent guard dogs for search tasks. They may over protect their families and territories, especially if they are not socializing properly. They don't want to be direct friends with strangers. German Shepherds are very intelligent and obedient, and protect their owners.

Although a 1999 Australian report provided statistics showing that German shepherd dogs are the third most vulnerable to attack people in some parts of Australia, considering their popularity, the percentage of GSD attacks dropped to 38th.

According to the National Geographic channel television program "dangerous encounter", the German shepherd dog's bite force is more than 1060 Newtons (238 LBF) (while the Rottweiler dog's bite force is more than 1180 – 1460 Newtons (265 – 328 LBF), the bull 1050 Newtons (235 LBF), the Labrador retriever dog of about 1000 Newtons (230 LBF), or the human of about 380 Newtons (86 LBF)).

It has been criticized that the breed of modern German Shepherd Dog deviated from the original idea of Max von Stephanitz, that is, German shepherd dog should first be bred as a working dog, and should be strictly controlled to quickly eliminate defects. In his opinion, the most important thing is that German shepherd dogs should be intelligent and able to work.

German Shepherd is a popular choice for working dogs. They are known for being easy to train, good at performing tasks and following instructions. Known for their police work, they are used to track down criminals, patrol problematic areas and detect and detain suspects. In addition, thousands of German Shepherds were used by the army. They are usually trained in reconnaissance missions and are often used to warn soldiers of the presence of enemies or booby traps or other hazards. German Shepherds are also trained by military groups to parachute from airplanes or as anti tank weapons. In World War II, they were used as communication dogs, rescue dogs and private guard dogs. Some of the dogs were taken home by foreign soldiers, whose intelligence impressed them deeply.

German shepherd dog is one of the most widely used breeds in odor work. These include search and rescue, cadaver search, narcotics detection, explosives detection, accelerant detection and landmine detection dogs. They have a keen sense of smell and the ability to work undisturbed, so they are suitable for these jobs. There was a time when German Shepherds were almost the only guide dogs selected as visually impaired. In the 1920s, under the leadership of Dorothy Eustis, Switzerland began the official guide dog training. All dogs trained were German shepherds. The temperament tests of a group of Labrador and German shepherd dogs showed that the average scores of emotional stability and the ability to recover quickly from fear, cooperation and friendliness were higher than that of German shepherd dogs. These results show that Labrador dogs are more suitable for guiding dog work, while German shepherd dogs are more suitable for police work. At present, Labrador and golden retriever dogs are more widely used in this work, although there are still trained German shepherds. In 2013, about 15% of the dogs trained by American guide dogs were German shepherds, and the rest were Labradors and golden retrievers. The British Blind Association's guide dog points out that the crossbreeding between golden retrievers and Labradors is the best guide dog, although they also train some German shepherds and other breeds. In the United States, blind guide dogs train Labradors, golden retrievers and hybrids between these breeds. Guide dogs in Queensland, Australia, also train only Labradors and golden retrievers.

German Shepherds are still used to graze and raise sheep on grass near gardens and farmlands. They will patrol the border to prevent sheep from invading and damaging crops. In Germany and elsewhere, these skills were tested in the utility dog test (also known as the Herden brauchshund grazing utility dog test).

Zuyaqui, a German shepherd dog from Mexico, was dissected and his body was displayed at the Nalco Museum in cedena, Mexico. He is believed to be the most drug addicted dog in Mexican police and military history.