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Toothbrush is an oral hygiene tool, used to clean teeth, gums and tongue. It consists of a tightly clustered brush head which can be coated with toothpaste. The brush head is installed on the handle to facilitate cleaning the hard to reach oral area.

Toothbrushes have different bristles in nature, size and form. Most dentists recommend using a soft toothbrush because a hard toothbrush can damage the enamel and stimulate the gums.

Although originally manufactured as an oral hygiene tool, toothbrushes have also been used as precision cleaning tools, especially in the military. This is because there are many tiny tow can make it in many traditional cleaning tools can not reach the narrow place for cleaning.

Before the invention of toothbrush, a variety of oral hygiene measures had been used. This has been confirmed by excavation, during which chewing sticks, branches, feathers of birds, bones of animals and feather pens of porcupines were recovered.

The predecessor of toothbrush is chewing stick. A chewing stick is a branch with a worn end for brushing and a toothpick at the other end. The earliest chewing stick was found in Sumeria Mesopotamia in 3500 BC. The ancient tomb of Egypt can be traced back to 3000 BC and 1600 BC in Chinese records. The Greeks and Romans used toothpicks to clean their teeth. Branches similar to toothpicks were found in Qin tombs. Chewing sticks are still common in Africa, rural southern United States and the Islamic world. Miswak chewing sticks are considered to be devout and are prescribed to be used five times a day before each prayer. Muslims have been using misnomer since the 7th century.

The first bristle toothbrush similar to the modern one was found in China. It was used during the Tang Dynasty (619-907) and consisted of bristles. [8] [9] bristles come from pigs living in Siberia and Northern China because the lower temperature makes the bristles harder. They are connected to handles made of bamboo or bone to form toothbrushes. In 1223, Japanese Zen master D? Gen kigen recorded in SH? b? genz? Up. He saw Chinese monks clean their teeth with a toothbrush made of horsehair attached to the shank of a cow's bone. The bristle toothbrush spread to Europe and was brought to China by travellers. It was adopted in Europe in the 17th century. The earliest use of the English word toothbrush was in Anthony wood's autobiography, which he wrote in 1690 that he bought it from J. Barret. Europeans found that the bristle toothbrush imported from China was too hard, and they preferred a soft bristle toothbrush made of horse hair. Until the middle of the 20th century, a large number of toothbrushes made of horse or bristle were still imported from China to Britain.

It has been found that compared with the conventional brush, the multi-directional electric brush can reduce the incidence of gingivitis and plaque. These brushes tend to be more expensive. Electric toothbrush rotates its bristles and cleans hard to reach areas. Most studies report performance comparable to manual brushing, and while the electric version may be more comfortable, the reduction in plaque and gingivitis may be reduced. Additional timers and pressure sensors can facilitate a more efficient cleaning process. According to the movement speed of electric toothbrush, it can be classified as standard electric toothbrush, sonic toothbrush or ultrasonic toothbrush. Technically, any electric toothbrush is an electric toothbrush. If the toothbrush moves fast enough to produce a buzz in the audible frequency range (20 Hz to 20000 Hz), it can be classified as a sonic toothbrush. Any electric toothbrush that moves faster than this limit can be classified as an ultrasonic toothbrush. Some ultrasonic toothbrushes, such as megasonex and ultreo, have acoustic and ultrasonic motion.

Teeth can be damaged by many factors, including poor oral hygiene and wrong oral hygiene. Especially for sensitive teeth, various measures can be taken to prevent damage to dentin and gums, including correct brushing techniques.

When using the straight brush, it is better not to scrub horizontally on the neck of the teeth, do not press the toothbrush on the teeth, select the toothpaste that is not too abrasive, and wait for at least 30 minutes before using it. Eat acid food or drink before brushing. The invention of Collis curvetm curved bristle toothbrush realizes simplified simultaneous brushing technology, which is specially described. "The curved bristle rotates along its axis and slides into the groove until the junction epithelium does not puncture it." A harder toothbrush can reduce plaque more effectively, but it has greater pressure on teeth and gums; a longer cleaning time from medium to soft toothbrush is considered the best compromise between cleaning effect and gum and tooth health.

A study by University College London found that 10 national dental associations, toothpaste and toothbrush companies and dental textbooks offered inconsistent advice on brushing techniques and frequency of use.

Sharing toothbrushes with others is not recommended, as in addition to general health problems, there is a risk of spreading diseases that can usually be transmitted through the blood, such as hepatitis C.

After use, it is recommended that the toothbrush be rinsed with water, shaken and dried.

Crooked and worn bristles of toothbrushes can lead to reduced cleaning efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to replace it with a new one when it appears to have run out (after about 6 to 16 weeks).