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Whisky or whisky is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented cereal paste. Various grains (possibly with MALT) are used in different varieties, including barley, corn, rye and wheat. Whiskey is usually aged in wooden barrels and is usually made from burnt white oak.

Whisky is the spirit of strict control in the world, with many kinds and types. The typical unifying characteristics of different categories and types are the fermentation, distillation and aging of grains in barrels.

The distiller used to make whisky is usually made of copper because it removes sulfur compounds from alcohol, which makes it unfit to drink. Modern distillers are made of stainless steel and have a copper endoscope (for example, pipes will be lined with copper and lined with copper plate inserts along the stationary wall). The simplest standard distillation equipment, commonly known as a still type distiller, consists of a single heating chamber and a container for collecting refined alcohol.

Column distiller is commonly used in the production of grain whisky, which is the most commonly used Distiller in Bourbon Whisky and other American whisky production. The behavior of column distillers is similar to a series of single pot distillers formed in a long vertical tube. Although a pot full of alcohol may produce vapor rich in 40-60% alcohol, the column can still achieve 95.6% vapor alcohol content. An azeotropic mixture of alcohol and water.

Whisky doesn't mature in the bottle, only in the barrel, so the "aging" of whisky is only the time between distillation and bottling. This reflects the degree of interaction between the barrel and whisky, thus changing its chemical composition and taste. Whiskies that have been bottled for many years may be of rare value, but they are not "old" or necessarily "better" than the latest whiskies that have matured at similar times in wood. After a decade or two, the extra ageing in the barrel does not necessarily improve whiskey.

Whisky is aged in wooden casks (especially American oak and French oak) and goes through six processes to make it have the final flavor: extraction, evaporation, oxidation, concentration, filtration and coloring. Extraction in particular leads to the acquisition of many compounds, including aldehydes and acids, such as vanillin, vanillic acid and butyral. Winemakers sometimes age whiskey in barrels previously used to age other spirits, such as rum or sherry, to give a specific flavor.

Whiskey is probably Scotland's most famous finished product. Over the ten years to 2012, exports grew by 87%, contributing more than £ 4 billion 250 million to the UK economy and accounting for 1/4 of its total food and drink revenue. In 2012, the US was the largest market for Scotch Whisky (£ 655m), followed by France (£ 535m). [28] it is also one of the top five manufacturing export earnings in the UK and provides about 35000 jobs. The main whiskey producing areas include Speyside and Isle of Islay, where eight distilleries provide the main sources of employment. In many places, tourism is closely related to tourism. Many wineries can also be used as tourist attractions every year, with a total value of 30 million GVA.

In 2011, 70% of Canadian whisky was exported to the United States, of which about 60% was exported to the United States, and most of the rest was exported to Europe and Asia. In 2011, 15 million cases of Canadian whisky were sold in the United States.

Whisky and other distilled beverages, such as brandy and rum, are complex drinks that contain a variety of flavorings, about 200 to 300 of which can be easily detected by chemical analysis. Flavoring chemicals include "carbonyl compounds, alcohols, carboxylic acids and their esters, compounds containing nitrogen and sulfur, tannins and other polyphenols, terpenes and heterocyclic compounds containing oxygen" and fatty acid esters. Nitrogen compounds include pyridine, methylpyridine and pyrazine. Sulfur compounds, including thiophene and polysulfide, seem to contribute to the baking properties of whiskey.

The flavor of whisky depends in part on the presence of its congeners and hybrid oils. Fuel oil is a higher alcohol than ethanol, which is moderately toxic and has a strong, unpleasant smell and taste. Too much fusel oil in whisky is considered a defect. In the distillation process, many methods are used to remove the unwanted fusel oil. Traditionally, U.S. distilleries have focused on secondary filtration with charcoal, gravel, sand or linen to remove unwanted distillates.

Acetaldehyde is rapidly formed in the distillate, and a lot of acetaldehyde (1,1-diethyloxyethane) is found in the distilled beverage. In whisky, the highest level is related to malt whisky. The acetal is the main flavor compound in sherry, and helps to increase the fruit flavor of the aroma.

Diketodiacetyl (2,3-butanedione) has a butter aroma and is found in almost all distilled beverages. Whiskey and cognac usually contain more vodka than vodka, but much less than rum or brandy.

Polysulfide and thiophene enter whisky through distillation and contribute to its baking flavor.