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Mayonnaise is a thick cold condiment or condiment, usually used on sandwiches and salad or French fries. It is also the basis of condiments such as Tata sauce.

It is a stable emulsion of oil, egg yolk and sour (vinegar or lemon juice). There are many variants that use other flavorings. Protein and lecithin in yolk can be used as emulsifiers in mayonnaise (and mayonnaise). The color of mayonnaise is from near white to light yellow, and its texture is from light cream to thick gel.

Commercial egg free alternatives are suitable for vegetarians and others who avoid eggs or dietary cholesterol.

A traveler referred to "mayonnaise" in 1804, but did not describe it. Viard's "mayonnaise" recipe, introduced in 1806, describes a sauce that consists of velvet, gelatin, vinegar and optional eggs to thicken it, curdling like a meat jelly. Grimod de lareyni è re's 1808 mayonnaise sauce is also a kind of meat jelly: "but if you want to make an outstanding dish with this cool chicken, a person forms a mayonnaise, whose green jelly has a good consistency, which is the main ornament of poultry and fish salad worth making." The word was proved in English in 1815. [8

Mayonnaise may have been around for a long time: "it's possible to simply make oil and eggs wherever olive oil is available, especially in the Mediterranean where mashed garlic mayonnaise (oil and garlic) is made."

The origin of the name is not clear.

A general theory is that it is named after manorqu í n's Ma ó and its founder, Margo Barca, on the island of menoka in memory of the victory of the third Duke of Richelieu over England in 1756. In fact, its name is "mahonnaz" which is used by some authors. But the name was only confirmed long after that. A version of the theory says it was originally called salsa mahonesa in Spanish, but later proved its spelling.

Grimod de lareyni è re refuses to use the name "mayonnaise" because of the word "not France"; he refuses to use "mayonnaise" because Mahong port "is not famous for its delicious food", so he prefers "mayonnaise", second only to Bayonne City, which has many innovative gourmets and produces the best ham in Europe.

The preferred spelling for car ê me is "magnonaise", which is derived from the French verb man ier "to handle".

Another suggestion is that it comes from Charles Deloren, Duke of mayena, who spent some time in cold sauce cooking chicken meal and was defeated in the battle of arques.

Whether the word "mayonnaise" originated before Richelieu or before the second half of the 18th century, it was originally called "aioli Bo.". The term is used in the cookbook "Nuevo arte de Cocina" written by Juan de altimiras in 1745, which contains many traditional menorcan recipes.

Modern mayonnaise can be made by hand with a beater, fork or electric mixer or blender. It is made by slowly adding oil to the yolk and stirring vigorously to disperse the oil. The oil and water in yolk form the basis of emulsion, while lecithin and protein in egg yolk are the emulsifiers that stabilize it. The combination of van der Waals interaction and electrostatic repulsion determines the bonding strength between oil droplets. The high viscosity of mayonnaise is due to the total strength of the forces between the two molecules. Because mustard contains a small amount of lecithin, adding mustard will help flavor and further stabilize the emulsion. If vinegar is added directly to the yolk, it can emulsify more oil and make more mayonnaise.

For the large-scale preparation of mayonnaise using mixing equipment, the process usually starts from the dispersion of egg powder or liquid egg into water. After emulsification, the remaining components are added and mixed vigorously until they are completely hydrated and evenly dispersed. Then add the oil as quickly as possible. Although only a small part of the total, ingredients other than oil are essential for the correct formulation. These must be completely hydrated and dispersed in a small amount of liquid, which may lead to difficulties, including emulsion decomposition during the refueling stage. Generally, a long mixing process is required to achieve proper dispersion / emulsification, which is one of the most difficult stages in the production process. However, with the progress of food industry technology, the processing process has been greatly shortened, which can produce about 1000 liters in 10 minutes.

Mayonnaise is widely used around the world and is the basis of many other frozen sauces and salad dressings. For example, the salad sauce in the classic French cuisine is mayonnaise, with mustard, cucumber, caper, parsley, celery, tarragon and possibly Cho fish essence added.

Typical formulas for commercial mayonnaise (not low fat) can contain up to 80% vegetable oil, usually soybean oil, and sometimes even olive oil. Water accounts for 7% to 8% and yolk for 6%. Some formulas use whole eggs instead of yolks. The other components were vinegar (4%), salt (1%) and sugar (1%). Low fat formulas usually reduce the oil content to 50% and increase the water content to 35%. Egg content reduced to 4%, vinegar to 3%. Sugar increased to 1.5% and salt decreased to 0.7%. Adding glue or thickening agent (4%) can increase viscosity, improve texture and ensure emulsion stability. There are several ways to make mayonnaise, but the average is about 700 calories (2900 kJ) per 100g and 94 calories (CAL) per tablespoon. This makes mayonnaise a calorie intensive food.

The nutritional components of mayonnaise (> 50% edible oil, 9-11% salt, 7-10% sugar in the aqueous phase) make it suitable as a food source for many putrefactive organisms. A set of conditions such as pH between 3.6 and 4.0 and low water activity aw of 0.925 limit the growth of yeast, some bacteria and molds. Yeast, Lactobacillus fructose and Rhodotorula are the species that cause mayonnaise deterioration. Z. The spoilage caused by bailli is characterized by product separation and "yeast" smell. One study showed that encapsulation cells with bifidobacteria and B. infantis could extend mayonnaise's life to 12 weeks without destroying microbes.