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Beef is the cooking name of beef, especially the meat of skeletal muscle. Humans have been eating beef since prehistory. [1] Beef is a source of high quality protein and nutrients.

Most beef bones and muscles can be used as they are, only need to be cut into certain parts, such as barbecue, short ribs or steak (filet mignon, sirloin steak, buttock steak, Rib Steak, rib eye steak, hanger steak, etc.), and other cuts also need to be processed (salted beef or dried beef). Decorations, on the other hand, are usually mixed with meat from older, thinner (and therefore harder) cattle, ground, chopped or used in sausages. Blood is used in some varieties called blood intestines. Other parts of the diet include other muscles and internal organs, such as the tail, liver, tongue, reticular or rumen tripe, glands (especially pancreas and thymus, known as bread), heart, brain (despite the presence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (commonly known as mad cow disease), kidney and bull's testicles (in the United States known as veal fries, prairie oysters or drop The danger of oysters. Some intestines are cooked and eaten as is, but are more often washed and used as natural casings. Bones are used to make beef soup.

Beef from bulls and heifers is similar. According to the economic situation, the number of heifers raised is different. Because the meat of a bull is usually hard, it is usually used for minced meat (known as ground beef in the United States) because it is usually harder. Cattle raised as beef can be allowed to roam freely on the grassland, or as part of a large-scale feeding operation (called a feedlot) (or centralized animal feeding operation), can be kept in a fence at a certain stage, usually with a certain amount of grain for feeding, protein, roughage and vitamin / mineral premix.

Beef is the third most consumed meat in the world, accounting for 25% of the world's meat production, next to 38% and 30% of pork and poultry. In terms of absolute quantity, the United States, Brazil and the people's Republic of China are the three largest consumers of beef in the world; in the world, the consumption of beef is the largest. However, Uruguay has the highest per capita consumption of beef and veal, followed by Argentina and Brazil. According to OECD data, Uruguayan people ate an average of more than 42 kg (93 lb) of beef or veal in 2014, which is the highest per capita consumption of beef / veal in the world. In contrast, the average American consumed only about 24 kg (53 lb) of beef or veal in the same year, while African countries (such as Mozambique, Ghana and Nigeria) consumed the least per capita beef or veal.

In 2015, the world's largest beef exporters were India, Brazil and Australia. Beef production is also important for the economies of Uruguay, Canada, Paraguay, Mexico, Argentina, Belarus and Nicaragua.

Beef production has a high environmental impact on protein per gram.

The beef is first divided into original cuts, first of all the meat. These are the basic parts from which steak and other subdivisions are cut. The term "original cut" is very different from "original cut," which is used to characterize cuts that are considered to be of high quality. Animals are the toughest because their legs and neck muscles play the most part. As the distance from the hoof and horn increases, the meat becomes tender. Different countries and cuisines have different names and names, sometimes the same name is used for different names. For example, in the United States known as the "cattle B R" cut meat and the British cattle s from body is significantly different.

In order to improve the tenderness of beef, it is often aged (i.e. refrigerated) to allow endogenous proteolytic enzymes to weaken structural proteins and myofibrillar proteins. The use of vacuum packaging can reduce deterioration and yield loss, thus achieving wet aging. Dry aging involves hanging the original (usually ribs or waist) in a humidity controlled cooler. Drying the outer surface can support the growth of mold (if it is too wet, it will destroy bacteria), resulting in pruning and evaporation loss.

Evaporation condenses the remaining protein and increases flavor intensity. Molds produce a nutty taste. Two to three days later, the effect is significant. Most tenderizing effects occurred in the first 10 days. The boxed beef stored and distributed in vacuum packaging is actually wet cooked during the distribution process. The dry age and wet age of senior Steakhouse were 21-28 days and 45 days respectively, in order to improve the flavor and tenderness to the greatest extent.

Protein can be destroyed by forcing a small, sharp blade through the meat, so that the tender meat or the older beef meat can be mechanically tenderized. Similarly, solutions of exogenous proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelain or silk protein) can be injected to enhance endogenous enzymes. Similarly, salt and sodium phosphate solutions can be injected to soften and swell myofibrillar proteins. This improves juiciness and tenderness. Salt can improve the taste, while phosphate can provide the taste of soap.

Beef is a source of complete protein and is rich in niacin, vitamin B12, iron and zinc (20% or more of daily value). [65] red meat is the most important dietary source of carnitine and, like any other meat (pork, fish, veal, lamb, etc.), it is also the source of creatine. During cooking, creatine is converted to creatinine.