Stewardesses or stewardesses (also known as stewardesses / stewardesses, stewardesses, stewardesses) are crew members employed by airlines. They are mainly used to ensure the safety and comfort of business aircraft, select business aircraft and passengers on board.
The role of air passengers derives from similar positions on passenger ships or passenger trains, but due to the limited space on the aircraft, it has a more direct relationship with passengers. In addition, the work of flight attendants around safety is much larger than that of similar personnel engaged in other forms of transportation. Unlike the pilots and engineers in the cockpit, the flight attendants on the plane make up the crew.
Heinrich Kubis became the first stewardess in the world in 1912. Kubis participated for the first time in passengers on the delag Zeppelin LZ 10 schwaben. He also took part in the famous LZ 129 Hindenburg and boarded the plane when it caught fire. When the window was near the ground, he jumped out of the window and escaped.
The origin of the word "housekeeper" in transportation is reflected in the word "chief housekeeper" in maritime transportation terms. The term "responsible person" and "chief steward" are often used interchangeably to describe persons with similar responsibilities in the navigation profession. The derivation of this language originated from the British international maritime tradition (i.e. the first mate) dating back to the 14th century and the American commercial ship imitated by American Airlines. In accordance with international conventions and agreements, the situation of all ship personnel sailing internationally is similarly recorded in their respective countries. Therefore, the U.S. Merchant Navy assigns this responsibility to the chief steward at the commander in chief level, where the commander has no position representative or roster.
Imperial had "cabin boys" or "housekeepers"; in the 1920s. In the United States, stout airways took the lead in hiring flight attendants in 1926 to work on the Ford three engine plane between Detroit and Grand Rapids, Michigan. Western Airlines (1928) and Pan Am (1929) were the first American Airlines to hire butler service food. In the era of gambling from Key West, Florida, to Havana, Cuba, the 10 person Falk used in the Caribbean was once an administrator. In many cases, the foreman will also play the role of chaser, steward or Chief Steward in modern aviation terminology.
The first stewardess was a 25-year-old registered nurse named Ellen church. She was hired by United Airlines in 1930, and for the first time she envisioned nurses on board. Other airlines follow suit, hiring nurses as flight attendants on most flights, then calling them "flight attendants" or "flight attendants.". In the United States, it was one of the few jobs that allowed women to work in the 1930s, and the Great Depression led to a large number of women applying for a few jobs. In December 1935, only 2000 women applied for 43 positions offered by intercontinental and Western Airlines.
The female stewardesses quickly replaced the male stewardesses, and by 1936 they almost took over the role. They are selected not only because of their knowledge, but also because of their characteristics. An article in the New York Times in 1936 described these requirements:
Girls who are eligible to be etiquette ladies must be Petite; weigh 100 to 118 pounds; be 5 to 5 feet 4 inches tall; and be 20 to 26 years old. In addition, strict physical examination is carried out four times a year, you can rest assured that it will bring perfect health.
Thirty years later, a classified advertisement published by the New York Times in 1966 for Air China stewardesses listed the following requirements:
High school graduates, single (widows and divorces without considering children), age 20 (girls 19 1 / 2 can apply for future consideration). 5'2 ", but not more than 5'9", weight is directly proportional to height, between 105 and 135, vision is at least 20 / 40 without glasses.
Appearance is considered to be one of the most important factors in becoming a stewardess. At the time, airlines believed that the exploitation of women's sex would increase their profits. As a result, stewardesses' uniforms usually fit well, wearing white gloves and high heels.
In the United States, if they decide to get married, they must not get married and be fired. Thanks to the employment of more women, the requirement to become a registered nurse for American Airlines was relaxed, and as many nurses joined the Military Nursing Corps, they almost disappeared during the Second World War.
Ruth Carol Taylor is the first African American pilot in the United States. In December 1957, February 11, 1958, Taylor was appointed as the steward of Mohawk air's flight from Ithaca to New York, the first time an African American had held the post. She was released within six months as a result of the marriage ban then prevailing among the mohawks.
The first complaints from the EEOC were from female flight attendants, who complained about age discrimination, weight requirements and marriage bans. (initially, depending on the airline, flight attendants will be fired when they reach the age of 32 or 35. If they exceed the weight requirement, they will be fired. When they are hired, they must be single. When they are married, they will be fired.) In 1968, EEOC announced that age, in accordance with Section VII of the civil rights act of 1964, limits the employment of crew members to unlawful gender discrimination. Also in 1968, EEOC ruled that gender as a steward was not a real professional requirement. In 1971, as a result of Diaz's decisive action in the Pan Am case, all airlines lifted restrictions on the employment of women only. By the 1980s, the entire U.S. aviation industry had abolished the no marriage rule. The last broad category of discrimination, the weight limitation, was relaxed in the 1990s through litigation and negotiation. Airlines still often have vision and height requirements and may require flight attendants to pass medical assessments.
As there will be 41030 new airliners by 2036, Boeing expects 839000 new crew members from 2017 to that time: 298000 (37%) in Asia Pacific, 169000 (21%) in North America and 151000 (19%) in Europe.
A 2018 study found that flight attendants had a higher proportion of breast, melanoma, uterus, gastrointestinal, cervical and thyroid cancers.
- American indian
- Anonymous mask
- Ballet dancer
- Disc jockey
- Doctors and nurses
- Industrail workers and engineers
- Medival knight
- Mouth smile
- Running man
- Sitting man
- Thief, robber
- Thinking man
- Thinking woman
- Amancio Ortega
- Angry Person
- Bhagat Singh
- Bill Gates
- Business People
- Christopher Columbus
- Eye Contact
- Narendra Modi
- Nelson Mandela
- Wise Man
- Young People