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Phoenix dactyliffera, commonly known as jujube or date coconut, is a flowering plant in areca family of Palmae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its origin is unknown due to long-term cultivation, it may have originated in the land around Iraq. This species has been widely planted and naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

Jujube trees are usually about 21-23 meters (69-75 feet) high and can grow on a single tree or cluster with multiple stems of a single root system. The leaves are 4-6 meters (13-20 feet) long, spiny on the petiole, and pinnately lobulated, with about 150 leaflets. Leaflets are 30 cm (12 in) long and 2 cm (0.79 in) wide. The entire span of the crown is 6-10 m (20-33 ft).

For thousands of years, jujube has been a staple food in the Middle East and the Indus Valley. There is archaeological evidence that jujube cultivation in the eastern Arabian peninsula between 5530 and 5320 years. They are believed to have originated in today's Iraq and have been cultivated from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt since ancient times. The ancient Egyptians used these fruits to make jujube wine and ate them at harvest time.

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