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Mixed martial arts

Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a kind of full contact fighting sport, which can use skills from all kinds of fighting and martial arts to fight and catch on the ground. The first recorded term of mixed martial arts was in a 1993 commentary on UFC 1 by TV critic Howard Rosenberg. When the term The term became popular when the article was hosted and republished (at the time, the largest website involved in the sport). The question of who really coined the word remains to be debated.

In the early 20th century, a variety of mixed competitions were held in Japan, Taiwan and four small dragon countries in Asia. In Brazil, there is the sport vale tudo, in which fighters of all styles fight almost without rules. The Gracie family is known for promoting the vale tudo competition to promote their Brazilian jujitsu style. The early high-profile mixed martial arts competition was Masahiko Kimura vs. H? Leo Gracie, Masahiko Kimura and H? The battle between Lio Gracie. In the west, Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do popularized the concept of combining various martial arts elements from the late 1960s to the early 1970s. The pioneer of modern MMA was the 1976 match between Muhammad Ali and Antonio Inoki, who fought between Japanese boxer Muhammad Ali and wrestler Antonio Inoki, and later inspired the creation of pancrase in 1993 and pride fighting champions in 1997.

In 1980, CV productions, Inc. created the first regulated MMA League in the United States, which was called "tough guy competition" and later renamed "Super Fighter battle". The company approved ten games in Pennsylvania. But in 1983, the Pennsylvania Senate passed a bill banning the campaign. In 1993, the Gracie family founded Ultimate Fighting Champion (UFC) MMA promotion company, bringing Brazilian jujitsu developed in Brazil in 1920s to the United States. The company ran an event with few rules, largely because of the influence of art Davie and Rorion Gracie, who tried to replicate vale in Brazil Tudo) fights, and then a different set of rules (e.g. elimination of opponents kicking off the ground) is implemented, which is different from other leagues that prefer to fight in real life.

At first, it was launched as a competition to find the most effective martial arts in the real unarmed combat. Competitors from different combat modes compete with each other in relatively less regular competitions. Later, individual soldiers integrated a variety of martial arts into their own style. MMA promoters were forced to adopt other rules to improve the safety of athletes, comply with sports laws and regulations and expand mainstream acceptance of the sport. With these changes, the sport's pay per view business, which can compete with boxing and professional wrestling, has become increasingly popular.

The sport that led to the creation of mixed martial arts scenes in Brazil is rooted in Brazilian jujitsu. Tudo in Brazil.

Vale tudo dates back to the 1920s, with Carlos Gracie and H? Lio Gracie's "Gracie challenge" is well known for its association, and later insisted by the descendants of the grace family. The grace challenge is held in the garages and gymnasiums of grace family members. With the increase of popularity, these types of melee have become the main attraction of people at Carnival in Brazil. In Japan, the early mixed match martial arts professional wrestling competition (known as ishu kakut? GI Sen, literally "heterogeneous combat sports competition") was popular with Antonio Inoki in the 1970s alone. Inoki is rikid? Zan's disciples, also Karl Gotch's disciples, trained wrestlers for countless Japanese wrestlers.

The regulated mixed martial arts competition was first introduced by CV productions, Inc. in the United States. Its first competition, called tough guy contest, was held on March 20, 1980 in Holiday Inn, new Kensington, Pennsylvania. In that year, the company renamed its brand "Super Fighter" and approved ten regulated competitions in Pennsylvania. In 1983, the Pennsylvania Senate passed a bill that specifically called for the "Prohibition of tough guys from competing or fighting" and ended the sport. In 1993, the sport was reintroduced to the United States by the ultimate combat Championship (UFC). When Royce Gracie won the first extreme combat championship, the sport gained international attention and was widely publicized, presenting the competition to three challengers in just five minutes. It triggered a martial arts revolution.

Japan has its own mixed martial arts discipline form, namely, shooto, which evolved from the wrestling competition in 1985, and pancrase, which was established as a wrestling derivative product in 1993 as a promotional activity. The first vale tudo Japan competition was held in 1994, and both won by Rickson Gracie in 1995. At about the same time, the international vale tudo competition began to develop (World vale tudo Championship (WVC), vtj, IVC, UVF, etc.). His interest in mixed martial arts led to the creation of the pride in 1997, which Rickson again took part in and won.

The sport reached a new peak in North America in December 2006: Chuck Liddell, the lightweight champion of UFC at that time, and Tito Ortiz, the former champion, re competed, comparable to the PPV sales of some of the biggest boxing competitions in history, and helped UFC's total PPV revenue in 2006 exceed any improvement in PPV history. In 2007, zuffa LLC, the owner of the UFC MMA promotion, purchased the Japanese competitor MMA brand pride fc, merging a contractual fighter into a promotion. Compared with other sports in the merger, such as American football afl-nfl merger.