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Anarchy is a condition of society, entity, group of people or a person refusing hierarchy. The word originally meant no leader, but in 1840 Pierre Joseph Proudhon used "what is property? Refers to a new political philosophy: anarchism, which advocates a stateless society based on voluntary associations. In fact, anarchy can mean the reduction or abolition of traditional forms of government and institutions. It can also designate a country (or anywhere in the world where people live) that has no government or central system of governance. Anarchy is mainly advocated by anarchists, who suggest to replace the government with voluntary institutions.

As a political philosophy, anarchism advocates an autonomous society based on voluntary institutions. These are often referred to as stateless societies, although several authors define them more specifically as institutions based on non hierarchical freedom associations. Anarchism holds that the state is unwelcome, unnecessary or harmful. Although anti nationalism is the center, anarchism needs opposite authority or hierarchical organization when dealing with all human relations including but not limited to the national system.

Anarchism has many types and traditions, but not all of them are mutually exclusive. Anarchists' schools of thought can be fundamentally different, supporting everything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Anarchist factions are divided into social and individualistic anarchism or similar double categories. Anarchism is generally regarded as a radical left-wing ideology. Many anarchic economics and anarchic legal philosophy reflect the anti nationalist interpretation of communism, collectivism, collectivism or participatory economics. Some anarchists are also socialists or Communists, while some anarchists are also individualists or egoists.

As a social movement, anarchism is often welcomed by people. Anarchism as the main trend of the mass social movement has been represented by anarchic communism and anarchic communism. The anarchism of individualism is mainly a literary phenomenon, but it does affect the larger trend. Individualists also participate in large-scale anarchic organizations. Some anarchists oppose all forms of aggression, support self-defense or non violence (anarchist pacifism), while others support the use of belligerent means, including revolution and propaganda, on the way to anarchist society.

Since the 1890s, the term liberal has been used as a synonym for anarchism, until the 1950s in the United States almost entirely in this sense. At this time, the American classical liberalists began to describe themselves as liberals, and then it is necessary to distinguish their individualism and capitalist philosophy from socialist anarchism. Therefore, the former is usually called right-wing liberalism, or right liberalism for short, while the latter is described by liberalism socialism, socialist liberalism, left liberalism and left anarchism. The liberalists on the right are divided into autocrats and anarchists or volunteers. Outside the English speaking world, liberalism generally maintains a link with left-wing anarchism.