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Napoleon Bonaparte (August 15, 1769 to May 5, 1821) was a French politician and military leader, who played an important role during the French Revolution and led several successful battles during the French war of independence. From 1804 to 1814, he was Napoleon I, the French emperor. In 1815, he was once again the French emperor for a short time. Napoleon led a series of alliances in France's war against Napoleon, and at the same time he dominated European and global affairs for more than ten years. He won most of these wars and most of them, established a huge empire and ruled the whole continent until 1815, when the continent finally collapsed. He is considered to be one of the greatest commanders in history. He studied wars and battles. Napoleon's political and cultural heritage has always been one of the most famous and controversial leaders in human history.

He was born in the island of Corsica, Napoleon di Buonaparte, in a relatively modest Italian family, from minors. When the French Revolution broke out in 1789, he served as an artillery officer in the French army. He quickly rose into the army, seized new opportunities brought about by the revolution, and became a general at the age of 24. He served as commander of the Italian army after suppressing 13 uprisings in wangjimir launched by royalist rebels against the government. At the age of 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and the Italian monarchs allied with the Habsburgs, winning almost all the battles, conquering the Italian peninsula, winning local support within a year, establishing the "sisterhood Republic" and becoming the war hero of France. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt and became a springboard for political forces. In November 1799, he planned a coup and became the first consul of the Republic. After Amiens peace in 1802, Napoleon turned his attention to the French colonies. He sold Louisiana to the United States and tried to restore slavery as a French Caribbean colony. However, despite his successful restoration of slavery in the Eastern Caribbean, Napoleon failed to subdue St. Domingo, a colony that France once proudly called the "Pearl of Antilles" that became independent of Haiti in 1804. Ambition and public recognition pushed him further, and he became the first emperor of France in 1804. The difference from Britain means that the French will face a third alliance in 1805. Napoleon won a decisive victory in the Ulm movement and broke the union. And in the battle of Austerlitz, it won the historic victory over the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire, which led to the disintegration of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, as Prussia began to worry about the expansion of France's influence on the African continent, the fourth Union adopted weapons against him. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia in the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, then marched his grand arm é e into Eastern Europe and annihilated the Russians at the Friedland battle in June 1807. France then forced the failed fourth Union countries to sign the Treaty of tircete in July 1807, bringing uneasy peace to the African continent. Tilsit marks the high water mark of the French Empire. In 1809, the Austrians and the British again challenged France in the fifth Union war, but Napoleon consolidated his control of Europe after winning the battle of vogram in July.

Napoleon then invaded the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to expand the continental system and prevent British trade with the European continent. In 1808, he declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte king of Spain. Spain and the Portuguese revolted with the support of Britain. The peninsula war lasted for six years, carried out extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended with the Allied victory over Napoleon. The mainland system has led to repeated diplomatic conflicts between France and its client countries, especially Russia. The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of the decline in trade and often violated the mainland system, luring Napoleon into another war. The French launched a massive invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The battle destroyed Russian cities, but it did not achieve the decisive victory Napoleon wanted. This led to the collapse of the Legion, and inspired his enemies to attack Napoleon again. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined in the sixth French joint war. A long military campaign eventually led to the defeat of Napoleon by a large allied force in the battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory in the small-scale battle of hanou led to his retreat to French territory. Later, the Allies invaded France and occupied Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to Elba, off the coast of Tuscany, and the Bourbons restored power. Napoleon fled Elba in February 1815 and once again took control of France. The Allied response was to form a seventh alliance, which defeated him in the battle of Waterloo in June. Britain exiled him to the remote South Atlantic island of St. Helena, where he died six years later at the age of 51.

Napoleon's influence on the modern world brought liberal reform into many territories he conquered and controlled, such as lowland countries, Switzerland and most of modern Italy and Germany. He carried out a basic liberal policy in France and in Western Europe as a whole. His Napoleonic Code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 countries in the world. The British historian Andrew Roberts pointed out: "Napoleon advocated, consolidated, compiled and geographically expanded the concepts supporting our modern world - monarchy, equality before the law, property rights, religious tolerance, modern secular education, sound finance, etc. He supplemented them with reasonable and effective local administration, put an end to rural banditry, encouraged science and art, abolished feudalism and the largest codification since the fall of the Roman Empire ".