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Spain (Spanish: Spanish (Spain): resta de Espa ñ a) is the officially established kingdom of Spain (Spain: Reino de Espa ñ a). It is a European country located in the southwest of Europe, with some Spanish territorial seas in the Strait of Gibraltar and along the Atlantic coast. Its continental European territory lies on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two islands: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla and PE ñ ó ndev é lezde La Gomera made Spain the only European country with real borders with African countries (Morocco). Several small islands in the alberland sea are also part of Spanish territory. The mainland of the country borders the Mediterranean, the South and East, and Gibraltar. France, Andorra and the bay of Biscay are in the north and Northeast; Portugal and the Atlantic are west and northwest.

With an area of 505990 square kilometers (195360 square miles), Spain is the largest country in southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. Spain is sixth in Europe and fifth in the European Union by population (about 47 million). The capital and largest city of Spain is Madrid. Other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Sevilla, Malaga and Bilbao.

About 35000 years ago, modern humans first arrived on the Iberian Peninsula. The Iberian culture and the ancient settlements of Phoenicians, Greeks, Celts and Carthaginians developed on the peninsula until Roman rule around 200 BC, after which the region was named Hispanic based on the early Phoenician names sp (a) n or Spania. At the end of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribal alliance migrated from central Europe, invaded the Iberian Peninsula, and established a relatively independent field in its western provinces (including SUBI, arras and vandals). Finally, the Visigoths will force all the remaining independent territories on the peninsula, including Byzantine Province, into the kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unifies all the former Roman provinces or later Spanish kingdoms politically, ecclesiastically and legally.

At the beginning of the eighth century, the Visigoth kingdom became a Muslim of the Islamic Caliph Umayyad. They arrived in 711 to rule most of the peninsula, leaving only a few small Christian kingdoms in the north, which lasted for eight centuries. Kingdom of Granada. During the long period of conquest, this led to many wars in the whole Iberian Peninsula, which led to the kingdom of Leon, the kingdom of Castile, the kingdom of Aragon and the kingdom of Navarra becoming the main Christian Kingdom facing the invasion. After the establishment of Al Andalus, Europeans began to gradually withdraw the area known as Reconquista, which reached a climax in the late 15th century and finally made Spain a unified country under the Catholic monarchy. Muslim rule in Spain ended in 1492, the same year Christopher Columbus arrived in the new world.

In the early modern times, Spain ruled one of the largest empires in history and one of the earliest global empires, leaving behind a huge cultural and linguistic heritage including + 570 million Spanish telephones, making Spain the second largest mother tongue language in the world, after the general call. In the golden age, art also made a lot of progress, such as Diego vel á zquez and other world famous painters. Spain's most famous literary work, Don Quixote, was also published in the golden age. Spain has the third largest UNESCO World Heritage site in the world.

Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed and high-income country, ranking 14th in the world in terms of nominal GDP and 16th in the world in terms of purchasing power parity. It is the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the euro area, the European Commission (COE), the organization of Ibero American States (OEI), the Mediterranean Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD), the organization for security and cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen area, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and many other international organizations. Although Spain is not an official member, it has participated in the "permanent invitation" of the G20 summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the organization.