A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a light and lens system and to be used as a navigational aid for sea pilots on sea or inland waterways.
Lighthouses mark dangerous coastlines, dangerous shoals, reefs and safe passage to the port; they also assist in air navigation. Once widely used, the number of operational lighthouses has been reduced due to the cost of maintaining and using electronic navigation systems.
The modern era of Lighthouse began in the early 18th century. With the rapid improvement of transatlantic trade level, the construction of Lighthouse is rising step by step. With the development of structural engineering and new efficient lighting equipment, people can create bigger and stronger lighthouses, including those exposed to the sea. The functional turn of the lighthouse provides a visual warning to prevent transport hazards such as rocks or reefs.
Winstanley's Lighthouse at Eddystone rocks marks the beginning of a new phase of Lighthouse development.
For sailors sailing in the English channel, Eddystone reef is the main shipwreck accident. The first lighthouse built there was an octagonal wooden structure anchored by 12 iron pillars fixed to the rock and built by Henry Winstanley from 1696 to 1698. His lighthouse is the first in the world to be completely exposed to the high seas.
John Smeaton, a civil engineer, rebuilt the lighthouse in 1756-59. His tower marked an important step forward in the design of the lighthouse, which was in use until 1877. He used granite bricks to model the shape of the lighthouse on oak trees. He rediscovered and used "hydraulic lime," a form of concrete that would set under water used by Romans, and developed a technique to hold granite blocks together using dovetail joints and marble dowels. Dovetail function helps to improve structural stability, although Smeaton also has to make the thickness of the tower gradually thinner towards the top, so he bends the tower inwards with a gentle slope. This profile has the added advantage of allowing some of the energy in the wave to dissipate when colliding with the wall. His lighthouse was the prototype of a modern lighthouse and influenced all later engineers.
Robert Stevenson is such an influencer. He is an important person in the development of Lighthouse design and construction. His greatest achievement was the construction of Bell Rock Lighthouse in 1810, one of the most impressive engineering feats of his time. This structure is based on the design of Smeaton, but has some improved features, such as the incorporation of rotating lights, alternating between red and white. Stevenson has worked in the northern lighthouse board for nearly 50 years, during which he designed and supervised the construction and improvement of many lighthouses. He has made innovations in light source selection, installation, reflector design, use of Fresnel lenses, and rotary and shutter systems that provide personalized signatures for lighthouses that seafarers can identify. He also invented the mobile boom and the balance crane as an essential part of the lighthouse construction.
Alexander Mitchell designed the first screw pile lighthouse - his lighthouse was built on piles screwed into a sandy or muddy sea floor. His design began in 1838 at the mouth of the Thames and was known as the Maplin sands lighthouse, which was first lit in 1841. Although construction began later, Wyre light in Fleetwood, Lancashire was the first to be lit (1840)