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Electric car

Electric vehicle (also known as battery electric vehicle or all electric vehicle) is a plug-in electric vehicle, driven by one or more electric motors, which uses the energy usually stored in rechargeable batteries.

Since 2008, the electric vehicle manufacturing industry has revived due to the progress of batteries, diseases and deaths caused by air pollution and the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Several national and local governments have established tax credits, subsidies and other incentives to promote the promotion and adoption of new electric vehicles in the mass market, usually depending on the size of the battery, the range of electric vehicles and the purchase price. The U.S. government currently allows a maximum tax credit of $7500 per car. Compared with internal combustion engine vehicles, electric vehicles are quieter, have no exhaust emissions and generally have lower emissions. [electric vehicles can be charged at various charging stations, which can be installed in houses and public areas. Nissan leaf and Tesla Model s, two of the best-selling electric vehicles in history, have an EPA class mileage of 151 miles (243 km) and 335 miles (539 km), respectively. Leaf is the best-selling highway electric vehicle in history. By March 2019, the global sales volume exceeded 400000, followed by Tesla Model S. by December 2018, the global sales volume was 263500.

As of December 2018, there are about 5.3 million light all electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in use worldwide. Despite the rapid growth, by the end of 2018, the global stock of plug-in electric vehicles accounted for only 1 (0.40%) of every 250 vehicles on the global road. The market for plug-in vehicles is moving to full electric batteries, as the annual sales ratio of BEV and PHEV in the world has increased from 56:44 in 2012 to 60:40 in 2015, and to 69:31 in 2018.

Electric vehicles are all kinds of electric vehicles (EV). The term "electric vehicle" refers to any vehicle propelled by an electric motor, while "electric vehicle" usually refers to an electric driven vehicle with highway function. Low speed electric vehicles are classified as neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States and electric four-wheel vehicles in Europe. They are plug-in electric micro vehicles or urban vehicles. They are restricted in terms of weight, power and maximum speed, which allow them to drive on public roads and urban streets and reach specific speed limits. The speed limits vary from country to country.

Although the power supply of electric vehicles is not an explicit vehicle battery, electric vehicles with motors powered by other energy sources are usually represented by different names. The electric vehicle with solar panel is a solar vehicle, while the electric vehicle driven by gasoline generator is a form of hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the electric vehicle which obtains power from vehicle battery pack is a form of battery electric vehicle (Bev). Most commonly, the term "electric vehicle" is used to refer to a battery electric vehicle, but it can also refer to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV).

As of 2019, due to low maintenance and energy costs, the operating cost of electric vehicles is cheaper than that of similar internal combustion engine vehicles, but the cost of initial purchase is much higher.

Therefore, generally speaking, the more kilometers driven each year, the total cost of ownership of electric vehicles will be lower than that of the same ice vehicles. However, the distance will vary by country, depending on the taxes and subsidies for different types of energy and cars, and in some countries, the distance may vary by city, because different cities in the country charge different fees for using the same type of car to enter the city, for example, in the UK, London charges higher than Birmingham.

Several national and local governments have developed incentives to reduce the purchase price of electric vehicles and other plug-ins.

When designing electric vehicles, manufacturers may find that for low volume products, the cost of converting existing platforms may be lower due to lower development costs, but for higher volume products, a dedicated platform may be preferred to optimize design and cost.

Almost 80% of electric vehicles in the United States are leased, while the rental rate of the entire fleet in the United States is about 30%. At the beginning of 2018, the value of electric compact cars in 2014 was 23% of their original price, while comparable cars with internal combustion engines were 41%.

For example, when designing electric vehicles, the cost of batteries is very high. The battery used by Tesla Motors costs about $200 per kilowatt hour.

The internal combustion engine has a thermodynamic limitation on efficiency, which is expressed as the proportion of the energy used to propel the vehicle compared to the energy generated by burning the fuel. Gasoline engine only uses 15% fuel energy to move the vehicle or use power accessories effectively, while diesel engine's vehicle efficiency can reach 20%, while electric vehicle's vehicle efficiency can reach more than 90%. When the required energy is calculated for recharging, the stored chemical energy is about 80%.

Electric motors are more efficient than internal combustion engines in converting stored energy into driving vehicles. The most common regenerative braking in electric vehicles can recover one fifth of the energy lost in the braking process.

Electric vehicles for production and retrofitting typically use 10 to 23 kW · H / 100 km (0.17 to 0.37 kW · H / mi). [87] [88] about 20% of this power consumption is due to the low charging efficiency of the battery. Tesla Motors said its lithium-ion battery powered vehicles are 12.7 kW · H / 100 km (0.21 kW · H / mi) efficient (including low charging efficiency) and its wheelset efficiency (if electricity is generated) is 24.4 kW · H / 100 km (0.39 kW · H / mi) natural gas. Increased use of renewable power