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Punk rock

Punk rock (or "punk") is a type of rock music that appeared in the United States, Britain and Australia in the mid-1970s. Punk rock band originated from garage rock in the 1960s and other forms of music now known as "original punk" band, rejecting the exaggeration that people think is the mainstream rock in the 1970s. They usually produce short, fast-paced songs with strong melodies and singing styles, streamlined instruments and politically anti-traditional lyrics. Punk adheres to DIY ethics; many bands make their own records and distribute them through independent record companies.

American rock critics first used the term "punk rock" in the early 1970s to describe the garage band of the 1960s, and later their actions were regarded as their style heirs. When the name of the movement now developed between 1974 and 1976, acts such as television, Patty Smith and ramons in New York City, sex pistols in London, conflicts and curses, and saints in Brisbane formed the vanguard. As 1977 approached, punk became the main cultural phenomenon in Britain. It spawned a punk subculture that expressed youthful rebellion through unique clothing and decorative styles (such as intentionally offensive T-shirts, leather jackets, bands and jewelry decorated with nails or nails, safety pins, shackles and S & M clothes). Ideology.

In 1977, the influence of music and subculture became more common and global. It is rooted in a wide range of local scenes that often refuse to connect with mainstream factions. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave of upsurge, as its new, less active behavior in adulthood adopted this style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive sub types, such as hardcore punk (such as minor threats), street punk (such as exploitation) and anarchist punk (such as crass), became the main mode of punk rock. Musicians who identify with or are inspired by punk style also pursue other music directions, resulting in derivatives such as post punk, new wave and later independent pop music, alternative rock and noise rock. By the 1990s, with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands (such as green day, randid, the offspring and Blink-182), punk was back in the mainstream.

The first wave of punk rock is "active modern", different from before. "In its original form, a lot of things [in the 1960s] were innovative and exciting," says Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone. Unfortunately, what happened was that people who couldn't stand Hendrix and the like started hanging out. Soon, it wasn't until 1973 that I knew what I needed was pure, lean, no nonsense rock music. " John Holmstrom, founding editor of punk magazine, recalled: "punk rock came into being because rock and roll became so gentle that behaviors like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were called rock and roll in front of me and other fans. Rock and roll means this kind of wild and rebellious music. " In the description of critic Robert Christgau, "it's also a subculture that despises the political idealism of Hippie mythology and the florid stupidity of California."

Hippies are rainbow extremists. Punk is black and white romance. Hippies force warmth; punks cultivate calmness. Hippies joke about free love. Punk pretending to be S & M is our condition. As a symbol of protest, cross marks are as deadly as flowers.

Technical accessibility and DIY spirit are very popular in punk rock. From 1972 to 1975, British bar rock promoted the emergence of punk rock by establishing a small network of places (such as bars), which can play in non mainstream bands. Pub rock also introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as stiff records, which introduced basic low-cost records. Pub rock band organized its own small venue tour and released small records of records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY morality was in sharp contrast to the musical effects and technical requirements boasted by many mainstream rock bands on the spot. People often doubt the skill of music. According to Holmstrom, punk rock is "a rock musician. Although they don't have much musician skills, they still feel the need to express themselves through music." In December 1976, sideburns, a British fan, published an illustration of the now famous three chords entitled "this is one chord, this is the other, this is the third. Now form a band.

British punk rejected contemporary mainstream rock, which represented a broader culture as well as their musical predecessors: "there was no Elvis Presley, Beatles or rolling stones in 1977", declaring the clash song "1977". In 1976, the punk revolution began in England, when music and culture were in grade zero. After the nostalgia was abandoned, many people at the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude, summed up with the slogan "no future" of the sex pistol. In the words of one observer, during the unemployment and social unrest of 1977, "punk nihilism was the most exciting thing in England." Although "self imposed alienation" is very common in "drunk punk" and "Tiangou punk", there is always a tension between their nihilism and "radical left utopianism" of bands such as Klass. They find a positive and free meaning in their novels. Sports. As one clash employee described to singer Joe Strummer, "punk rock is bound to be our freedom. We are destined to be able to do what we want to do. "

The issue of authenticity is very important in punk subculture - the pejorative word "post ur" is suitable for those who are associated with punk and adopt its style features but are not considered to share or understand its basic values and philosophy. Daniel s. traber, a scholar, argues that "it can be difficult to obtain the authenticity of punk identity". As the punk scene matures, he says, eventually "everyone is called a poster.".

Early punk bands often emulated garage rock in the 1960s. Typical punk rock instruments include one or two electric guitars, an electric bass, a drum kit and vocals. Songs are often shorter than other popular types of songs. Punk songs are played at a fast, "breakthrough" pace, which is influenced by the Ramones. Most of the early punk rock songs retained the traditional rock chorus form and the 4 / 4 time sign. However, later bands often broke the format. In critic Steven blush's description, "sex pistols are still rock music Like the craziest Chuck Berry. Sexual intercourse is a fundamental deviation. It's not chorus rock. It eliminates the creation of songs about what should be. This is its own form. "

Vocals are sometimes nasal, and lyrics are often shouted rather than sung in the usual sense. Punk rock's "hoarse, harsh" singing and chanting are in sharp contrast to mainstream rock's "melody and fashion" singing. Early punk singers had "arrogant growls.". Although basic guitar breaks are common, complex guitar solos are considered indulgent and unnecessary. Guitar parts often include heavily distorted chords or Pasteur chords, which produce a typical sound called "chainsaw drones" by Christgau. Some punk bands use lighter bass guitar tones to surf. Others, such as Robert Quine, the lead guitarist at voidoids, have carried out wild "anecdotal" attacks, a style that dates back to the velvets underground, up to the IKE Turner records of the 1950s. The lines of a bass guitar are usually not complicated. Although some punk rock bass players (such as Mike watt and firehose of Minutemen) emphasize more technical bass lines, the typical method is unremitting, repetitive "forced rhythm". Because of the rapid continuity of the notes, bass hands often use plucked strings, which makes fingers playing impractical. Drums usually sound heavy and dry, and are rarely set. Compared with other forms of rock, the segmentation rule is much less. Iron drums are often very fast. Production tends to be simple, sometimes laying tracks on a home tape recorder or a simple four track portastudio. The typical goal is to keep the recorded sound from being manipulated and authentic to reflect the determination and authenticity of the live performance.

Punk rock lyrics are usually candid and confrontational. They often comment on social and political issues compared with lyrics of other popular music types. Trendsetting songs such as clash's "career opportunities" and Chelsea's "right to work" deal with the grim reality of unemployment and urban life. Especially in the early English punk music, the main goal is to provoke and shock the mainstream. The "British anarchy" and "God saves the Queen" of Sex Pistols openly "see the British political system and social atmosphere. Antipathy to relationships and gender is common, such as Richard hel's "flying in love," which he wrote and recorded with "void.". It is a common theme to express anomie in different ways with the poetic expression of the "blank generation" of hell and the forthright expression of "now I want to smell some glue" of ramons. Punk, which identifies these themes, agrees with V. vale, founder of search and destroy, a San Francisco fantasy magazine: "punk is a total cultural revolt. It's a hard fight against the dark side of history and culture, the right-wing image. Sexual taboo, in-depth study, is never such a thorough way in any generation The controversial content of punk lyrics led radio stations to ban some punk records and refuse shelf space for large chains.

The classic punk rock look of American male musicians can be traced back to T-shirt, motorcycle jacket and jeans ensemble, which are popular with American grease related to rock band in 1950s and British rock singers in 1960s. In addition to T-shirts and leather jackets, they wear worn-out jeans and boots, usually Doc Martens. The look of punk inspired people. Richard hel's more androgynous appearance of lagafin, as well as the famous invention of safety pin aesthetics, had a significant impact on the spokesman of sex pistol Malcolm McLaren and British punk style. (John D. Morton of the Cleveland eels may be the first rock musician to wear a safety pin jacket.) [39] fashion designer Vivienne Westwood, McLaren's partner, thinks Johnny rotten is the first British punk to tear a shirt, and Sid, the bassist of a sex pistol Vicious became the first to use safety pins, although few people could afford the famous McLaren and Westwood designs of pistols after punk, so they made their own choice to diversify the "look" in various styles based on these designs. The young women in punk destroy the typical female type in rock in a fashionable way, namely "female sex kitten or wronged Bruce belt". Early female punk musicians showed a variety of styles, from the shackles of siouxie and Sioux to Patti Smith's "straight from the sewer androgyny". The former has a greater impact on the style of female fans. Over time, tattoos, piercings, and metal and spiked accessories have become common elements of punk fashion among musicians and fans, a "decorative style designed to disturb and provoke.". In other aspects of punk rock scenes, punk hair is an important way to express their freedom of expression. The typical male punk hairstyle was short and choppy. The Mohawk became a characteristic style. Along with the Mohawk, punk rock style is also accompanied by the appearance of spikes. In addition to the Mohawk, many punk rock singers will also have bright neon hair.

The typical stage performance style of male punk musicians is not significantly different from the masculine posture in classical rock music. The difference between female punk musicians and early styles is more obvious. Scholar John Strohm suggests that this is done by creating roles that are often seen as men: "they take a tough, unlike women's posture, which draws more from the masculinity of the garage band of the 1960s than from the bad girl image calculated like this. The fugitive. " Dave Laing, a scholar, describes how gay adv, a bessier, uses fashion elements related to male musicians just to produce stage characters that are easy to be "sexy" consumed. Laing focuses on more innovative and challenging playing styles, which can be seen from various pornographic instability methods of siouxie Sioux, slits'ari up and X-ray spex'poly polyrene.

The lack of emphasis on stereotypes led to punk dance becoming a form of "deviant". The characteristic style was originally pogo. Before becoming a bessier of sex pistols, Sid vicious was praised for launching pogo in the UK as a participant in one of the concerts. In a hard core show, it's typically a lunge. The lack of regular dance rhythm is an important factor limiting the mainstream business influence of punk.

Breaking the distance between the performer and the audience is the core of punk morality. So it's important for fans to attend the concert. In the first heyday of the movement, it was often provoked in a confrontational way, which was obviously improper, but it was the proper "punk". The first wave of British punk bands, such as "Sex Pistols" and "damned people", insulted the audience and made a strong response. Lain identified three main forms of the audience's physical response to the ball: throwing, stage invasion, spitting or "swallowing.". In the iron field, stage invasion is usually the prelude of stage diving. In addition to the many fans who started or joined the punk band, the audience also became important participants through many amateur writing and unofficial journals on site. In England, according to Laing, "punk" was the first music genre to produce punk bands. Any significant figures ".